Monday, May 28, 2018

Lionel Messi footballer  biography

Lionel Messi footballer biography

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Name:Lionel Andres Messi
Birth date:24/June/1987
Birthplace:Rosario,Argentina
Height:5 ft 7inches
Playing position:Forward
Teams:Argentina National Team and Barcelona
Current club: Barcelona
Body Measurements: 40-32-12
Eye Color:Black
Hair Color:Black
Religion:Roman Cathlic 
Martial Status: Married

Lionel Messi Career,family: Lionel Messi was born 24/June/1987 in Rosario,Argentina. His father name -jorge Horacio Messi He is a steel factory manager,Mother name-Celia Maria Cuccittini She  worked in a magnet manufacturing workshop,Brother name- Matias Messi and Rodrigo Messi,sister name-Maria Sol Messi,wife name- Antonella Roccuzzo,Son- Thiago Messie.ionel Messi was romantically involved with an Argentine girl named Macarena Lemos. Then he had made up a love relation with Antonella Roccuzzo who give birth a son named Thiago without marriage. .Messi played soccer with his two brothers and friends, unfortunately, he was smaller than other same age boys. Eventually, at the age of 11, he was diagnosed by doctors as suffering from growth hormone deficiency. Firstly, his parents tried to push growth-hormone injections into Messi’s body by their won cost, but it was impossible to pay $900 per month. Because, his family did not have enough money to pay cost $900 a month for treatment. However, at the age of 13, he got a chance to execute his treatment by Carles Rexach, the sporting director of FC Barcelona. Rexach was acquainted with Messi’s talent and Barcelona offered to pay for Messi’s medical bills if he was willing to move to Spain. Rexach offered Messi a contract written on a paper napkin at the same time as if, with no other paper at hand.Messi began to play football for Grandoli a local club at the age of five. Now, he is the best player and best scorer in the world. For his speed and relentless attacking style, very often he is compared with Diego Maradona. He frequently has been broken all the previous record one by one. Such as, he is the first player to score five goals in Champion League, he surpassed Cesar Rodrigues’s 232 goals as a Barcelona’s leading scorer, and he hit 91 goals in a calendar which merged Gerd Muller’s previous record 85 goals in 1972.On December 01, 2009 Messi wined award of the 2009 Ballon d’Or beating runner-up Cristiano Ronaldo by ever highest point 473. Further, he was named for the fourth time as a FIFA Ballon d’Or winner in January 2013. Now, his net assets are estimated at $180 million. Messi is the truthful successor of Diego Maradona.

Life Style: Net Wroth 400$ Million Salary 1 Million Per Games.His House place Barcelona and his many properties. Car-Bugatti price-14 to 18 crore, Rolls Royce  price 6 to 8 crore, BMW price  1 to 1.5 Crore, Ferrari price 4 to 5 crore 


Sunday, May 27, 2018

MBA Study Guide Question for Accounting Courses

MBA Study Guide Question for Accounting Courses

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 Accounting Courses ,bioshort.xyz



Accounting Information Analysis:
1. What is Contribution Margin? How may a company use that number?
2. What is the difference between full (absorption) costing and direct (variable) costing?
3. Name the four basic financial statements.
4. What is the difference between job order and process costing?
5. What is the difference between the cash and the accrual basis of accounting?
6.What is a common or joint cost?
7. Students should be familiar with the following areas-
  • Cost classifications, flows through accounts, and behavior
  •  Job order costing
  • Process costing
  •  Cost-volume-profit analysis
  • Variable vs. Absorption costing
  • • Activity-based costing
  •  Standard costing and variance analysis
  • • Master budgets
  •  Capital budgeting  

Auditing
1. What is the primary purpose of the audit function? Who hires and pays the auditor? Who does the auditor work for?
2. Do you believe the rapid increase in consulting services performed by CPAs has hurt auditor independence?
3. Did the Enron scandal result from a failure of the audit function? If not, what was the primary failure by the CPA firm?
4. Give two examples each of preventive and corrective controls.
5. State three purposes of an audit program.
6. When should an audit program be prepared?
7. An auditor’s conclusion about audit risk at the financial statement level could impact the audit in what ways?
8. What hazards can be found in devising written tests for internal audit applicants and how can the hazards be avoided?
9. What significant benefits can the audit department obtain by reviewing proposed audit schedules with top management?
10. Why should an internal auditor review computer systems and applications before using the computer as an audit tool?
11. What attributes of internal auditors must be appraised by external auditors before they may rely on the work of the internal auditors?
12. Define the non-government “single audit” concept.

Financial Accounting
1. Discuss the revenue recognition and the matching principles as they relate to the preparation of the financial statements.
2. Discuss the relationship between historical cost and market value in recording assets on the balance sheet. What is the relationship between the two on the day an asset is acquired?
3. If the objective of financial reporting is to provide useful information to decision makers (investors and creditors), why does the Financial Accounting Standards Board allow different methods of accounting for inventory, depreciation, etc.?
4. As more businesses operate in foreign environments, discuss the impact of a strengthening dollar on the operating results of the foreign operations.

Managerial Accounting: 
1. In a manufacturing environment, what are the primary criteria to be used in assigning a cost driver for allocating overhead? What are the potential consequences of using the “wrong” cost driver?
2. Which of the major manufacturing costs (materials, labor, overhead) is declining as a percentage of total product cost? Why?
3. Discuss the benefits of activity based costing as opposed to job order costing or process costing.
4. Many firms are now moving their operations outside the United States. Discuss reasons why firms choose to operate in foreign countries.

Tax Accounting: 
1. What is the primary purpose of the federal income tax? Who passes the federal tax laws?
2. Discuss examples in which Congress uses tax laws in an attempt to manage the economy and to influence the behavior of citizens.
3. Discuss key differences in the taxation of individuals (sole proprietorships) versus corporations.
4. Discuss differences in the deductions allowed for personal expenditures as opposed to business expenditures.   

Saturday, May 26, 2018

Issue of Objective  Insurance of Bangladesh

Issue of Objective Insurance of Bangladesh

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Issue:
In Bangladesh, the Insurance business - after an early stage of dislocation, adventure and experimentation for about half a century - has now been established as a growing industry. The Insurance market in Bangladesh consists of 42 general and 18 life insurance companies. Of these there are two state-owned corporations (one in life and one in general) and one foreign life company.  Insurance Development and Regulatory Authority (IDRA), is the regulatory-body of the country's insurance sector, became operational in 2011. Although there is high potential for growth, the insurance sector of Bangladesh is engulfed with various problems that are considered to be major obstacles to development of this sector. As a result it has not been able to establish itself as one of the attractive industries in Bangladesh.

The insurance industry in Bangladesh had its roots in the British colonial era. Almost a century back, some insurance companies started transacting business in Bengal but the insurance industry started gaining momentum during 1947-1971 when forty nine local and foreign companies started transacting in life and general insurance schemes. After liberation war, the government of Bangladesh nationalized insurance industry in 1972 by the Bangladesh Insurance (Nationalization) Order 1972.  All insurance companies, except postal life and foreign life insurance companies, were placed under five corporations in public sector.  However, cost of maintaining five corporations soon outweighed the benefits. Thus on 14 May 1973 a restructuring was made under the Insurance Corporations Act 1973. In place of five corporations the government formed two: “Sadharan Bima Corporation (SBC)” for general business and “Jiban Bima Corporation (JBC)” for life business.

In 1984, a change was brought in the structural arrangement to keep pace with the new economic trend of privatization due to poor performance of nationalized businesses. The Insurance Corporations Amendment Act 1984 allowed insurance companies in the private sector to operate side by side along with nationalized insurance companies. The Act of 1984 made it a requirement for the private sector insurance companies to obtain 100% reinsurance protection from SBC. This virtually turned SBC into a reinsurance organization. In 1986, when private insurance companies started functioning, the total premium income was Tk. 1.71 billion (both life and general), out of which the private sector share was Tk. 280 million, i.e. 16.37 per cent. This figure rose to Tk. 23.06 billion in 2004, out of which the share of private sector was Tk. 20.31 billion, i.e. 88 per cent. The growth of the insurance industry during last 18 years is quite impressive due to operation of private sector insurance companies.

However mushrooming effect of this private sector have resulted in several irregularities within the sector starting from non standard recruitment process of marketing and sales agents to unethical means of attracting business. The nationalized insurers are the major victim of these setbacks. The bureaucratic redundancy and lack of proper fund in these organizations have impeded the development of the workforce in terms of providing effective training and contemporary communication technologies for enhanced functionality. The stiff competition, unethical practices such as credit business, high rate of procurement cost popularly known as commission, shortage of professionally qualified personnel, step-motherly attitude from the banks etc., are some of the acute problems eroding the development of the insurance sector.

Moreover the absence of an assertive and efficient regulatory body, imprudent taxation policy of the government, weak corporate governance and communication gap between general public and the insurance companies are some of the common problems  retarding the development of the whole insurance sector in Bangladesh. Implementation of the insurance regulatory authority is now the most important need of the sector to establish a degree of accountability and balance in financial principles in the industry. The unethical practices involving commission payments or business development expenditures are the synonyms of a deeper malaise. Its remedy might necessitate some radical surgery. The government should perform that without delay by encouraging merger and acquisition of units in the sector.

Different researches identified several problems and prospects within the insurance industry of Bangladesh. It was found that insurance does have a significant prospect in Bangladesh with fire, marine and motor insurance being made compulsory by several businesses and more number of people purchasing life insurance policies (Huq 2004). Also there are complains of low quality service as well as significant complications in terms and conditions in the contract (Azam 2005) Professionalism from the employees themselves is a major problem with low qualification level of employees and unorganized structure of recruitment  (Haq 2006).

The Insurance Industry at this moment is lagging behind the other service sectors of Bangladesh. At the same time insurance is deemed to be a key component for every business and human life. To enhance the growth of insurance business in Bangladesh, the problems hampering the growth of this business must be identified. The main issue of this study is find these problems and look for several prospects congruent to the industry’s growth. The present situation of the insurance industry and suggestions to seek remedial measures are statistically and qualitatively explained in the research paper.

Objective :
The broad objective of the study is to find out the problems that has hindered the growth and development of the insurance industry and its overall prospects in Bangladesh. Specifically this study tried to identify:
The problems related to human resource management, the operational inefficiencies, the lack of marketing skills, the unethical issues affecting insurance business.
The problems related to economic, operational, new entrants, and industry growth.


Thursday, May 24, 2018

Definition of Cif of sale contract law trade

Definition of Cif of sale contract law trade

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Defination of cif: when goods are purchased on a cif basis, the obligation of the seller is to ship the goods at the port of shipment specified in the contract at his own expense and to insure the goods under a policy of marine insurance for the sea voyage as is usual in the trade for the type of goods and voyage involved, or to buy insured goods already afloat on a ship which sailed with its cargo from the designated port of shipment. The seller completes performance by delivering to the buyer or his authorised agent (often his bank) all the documents required under the cif contract, namely, it shipped bill of lading covering the contract goods and no others, or some other document permitted by the contract itself; a commercial invoice representing the contract goods; a policy of insurance for the goods for the duration of the sea voyage, or a certificate of insurance if permitted by the contract. In addition, the buyer may require other documents, such as a certificate of inspection.

The  letters ‘cif' represent the three contracts involved: the cost (the sale contract), insurance (the contract of insurance) and freight (the contract of carriage). 



The seller does not undertake that the goods will arrive, but merely that the buyer will have possession of documents conferring on him the benefit of contractual claims against the carrier and insurers together with the property in the goods and the right to immediate possession from the carrier on arrival at the port of  destination. 



If the seller presents the buyer or his authorised agent with conforming documents, the buyer is bound to pay the price, even if at the time the documents are tendered, the goods have been lost, provided that the act appropriating the goods themselves to the contract of sale occurred before the loss. See Chapter 1 and Gill £6 Dufus v Berger [1984] AC 382. 



Although the parties to the contract may state that it is on cif terms, the true nature of the contract can only be ascertained by an examination of all the terms. Indeed, the contract may take on a different form depending upon how the parties exercise any options they might have under the contract. Therefore, whilst the 



description as cif will not be overlooked, neither will it be taken as conclusive. In T he julia Lord Porter said: 



‘The true effect of all its terms must be taken into account, though, of course, the description cif must not be ignored entirely.‘ 



The facts of The Julia were that the parties contracted on cif Antwerp terms for the export sale of grain. They agreed, however, that the seller could demand payment against either a bill of lading and insurance policy or a delivery order and insurance certificate. The seller was in any event to pay for any deficiency in weight delivered. The seller used part of a bulk cargo of grain covered by a single bill of lading and policy of insurance. As he was selling to the buyer a proportion of the bulk, the bill of lading and policy of insurance did not conform to the contract as they referred to goods'not included in the sale. lie was, therefore, bound to perform by using a delivery order and insurance certificate. The buyenpa'td {so}??? 383:“: the tender of those documents. However, when Germany tmadc ' £51m: . , seller, without the buyer's consent. discharged. the 80045 “Pd sold cl?“ ere .Ppml‘: that the buyer could recover on the policy of insurance evrdenccd by the can tcatc. The buyer instead brought an action for the money paid. . 



It was held that the contract was not a mi contract, but an ex ship contract for the delivery of goods at’ftntwerp. As the goods were not so delivered, there was a total failure of consideration. This was so even though the contract provided for payment in exchange of documents. The House of Lords stressed the facts that the seller had an option as to the way m.wh1ch he would perform, and that he purported to perform by tendering a delivery order and certificate of insurance, If the seller had chosen to tender a bill of ladtng and policy of insurance he would, it seems, have been held to have completed his obligations as if under a cif contract. The contract was, therefore. either a C‘f 0' ex Ship Contract at the Option of the 



seller, and its true nature could not be determined until that Option had been exercised. 

Tuesday, May 22, 2018

International Sale Contracts Law Trade

International Sale Contracts Law Trade


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Introduction: The main characteristic of an international sale is that it will involve a transaction between a buyer in one state and a seller in another, requiring the movement of goods from the seller’s state to the buyer’s, typically by sea.

A typical export sale contract will involve lire elements. First, there will be the

underlying contract of sale which sets out the goods, the mode and place of delivery, the way payment is to be made and other incidentals. '

Secondly, there will be a contract of carriage entered into by either the seller or the buyer depending on their respective obligations as set out in the contract of sale.

Thirdly, there will be a contract of insurance for the goods whilst in transit from the seller to the buyer. Again nhich party is to make the contract of insurance will depend on the terms of the contract of sale.

Fourthly, there will be certain conditions required by the export and import authorities to be fulfilled by either the seller or the buyer. ,

Finally, there will be the particular mechanism of payment to be erected by the buyer: nhether simply by cash, or by bill of exchange, or by documentary Ut‘dll.

4‘!
Many of the obligations to be performed by the parties to an international sale will involve documents. Hence the goods may he represented by a bill of lading or some other document purporting to perform the same function as a document of title. The contract of insurance may be contained in a policy or evidenced by a certificate. The financing of the sale will often involve bills of exchange and documentary credits. It is the use of documents which has enabled the practice of selling overseas to develop and, with modern systems of transport and communication, to become more secure and successful.

Over the years as international sales have become more common, merchants and traders have developed practices around which they make and perform their contracts. The names used for the different types of contract into which the parties may enter reflect the delivery point of the goods on which the contract price is based, and use a form which is an abbreviation established by trade practice. The two most common are fob and cif. These terms are principally price terms, indicating what is included in the price, but they also indicate the extent of the respective parties‘ obligations. Whilst the former function is usually reliable, the latter is only a rule of thumb, and the parties can agree to vary their actual obligations.

The following is a list of the most common price and delivery terms indicating the location to be stated in the contract and the delivery point:

Trade Term: Fob ( Free on Board),Cif (Cost,Insurance,Freight), Des (Delivered Ex Ship)

Location State:  Port Of Shipment, Port Of  Destination,

Delivery Point: On Board Ship,Port Of Destination

Friday, May 18, 2018

Conditions and warranties International Trade Law

Conditions and warranties International Trade Law



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Conditions and warranties,Bioshort.xyz

Conditions and warranties:

Contractual terms may be conditions, warranties or in nominate terms. The SGA 1979, however, only divides contractual terms into conditions and warranties. The distinction between conditions and warranties is drawn in 811(3) which also indicates that whether a particular term is a condition or warranty depends on the

construction of the contract:

Whether a stipulation in a contract of sale is a condition, the breach of which may give rise to a right to treat the contract as repudiated, or a warranty, the breach of which may give rise to a claim for damages but not to a right to reject the goods and treat the contract as repudiated, depends in each case on the construction of the contract; and a stipulation may be a condition, though called a warranty in the contract.The terms of a contract which can properly be categorized as conditions are the principal terms of the contract. The non-performance of the obligation imposed by a condition of a contract is regarded as so serious that the innocent party should be relieved from further performance of his obligations under the contract. Breach of a contractual condition goes to the root of the contract and the question of  a particular term is a condition is to be determined by construing the contract to ascertain the intention of the parties thereto. The label attached by the parties to any particular term is not decisive. The party who is guilty of failing to perform the obligation imposed Upon him by a contractual condition is said to have repudiated the contract. This repudiation.

may either be accepted or rejected by the innocent party. If the innocent P’mY chooses to accept the guilty party’s repudiation the contract comes to an end and both parties are relieved from any further performance of the contract. if the

innocent party decides not to accept the guilty party‘s repudiation of the contract but in fact rejects it, the contract remains alive and both parties must continue to

perform their respective obligations under the contract. In such a case the innocent party is, however, entitled to sue for any loss or damage he may have suffered by reason of the guilty party’s breach 'of contract. This option is expressly provided for

in 511(2):

‘Where a contract of sale is subject to a condition to be fullilled by the seller, the buyer

may waive the condition, or may elect to treat the breach of the condition as a breach of warranty and not as a ground for treating the contract as repudiated.’

A warranty is a term which is collateral to the main purpose of the contract, the breach of which gives rise to a claim for damages but not to a right to treat the contract as repudiated (561( 1)). A breach of warranty does not go to the root of the

contract but is a comparatively minor breach when looked at in the context of the contract as a whole.
The classification of contractual terms into conditions and warranties is not exhaustive. There IS a third category of contractual term, the‘ in nominate term’. If the parties were not concerned so much with the nature of the term but with the consequences of its breach the court will give effect to that intention and treat the . ‘term as in nominate. See Hong Kong Fir Shipping Co Ltd v Kawasaki Kis’en Kai's/2a Ltd [1962] 2 QB 26. Whether the breach of such a term is repudiatory, entitling the innocent party to bring an end to the contract, or whether the breach is such that it only allows the injured party to claim damages, depends on the consequences of the breach If the consequer ces are such that the commercial purpose of the contract is frustrated then the breach will be repudiatory. See The Hansa Nord [1976]

The SGA 1979 implies into contracts for the sale of goods various conditions as to title (512), description (513), quality and fitness for purpose (514) which are examined below but in commercial contracts there will often be other conditions. In commercial contracts time will normally be regarded as of the essence. "so a term requiring performance of an obligation by a particular date will normally be‘ regarded as a condition, see Bunge Corporation v Trazlax Export SA [1981] l WLR 711. In particular if the contract of sale calls for goods to be shipped by a particular date or within a particular period the time of shipment will be a condition of the contract. In Bower v Sham] (1877) 2 App Gas 455 two contracts for the sale of rice'called for shipment in March and/ or April from Madras.


Thursday, May 17, 2018

University of Oxford History,Education,Degree Information

University of Oxford History,Education,Degree Information



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University of Oxford,bioshort.xyz


University of Oxford Degree:

Graduate admissions: The University of Oxford offers a unique experience to graduate students, including the opportunity to work with leading academics and with some of the very best libraries, laboratories, museums and collections worldwide. 

Introducing Oxford scholarships: University of Oxford 1,100 full graduate  scholarships available for courses. Full scholarships will cover your course and college fees and provide a grant for living costs.

Oxford scholarships worth over £1,000 are advertised through the Fees, Funding and Scholarship Search. You should use this tool to find out whether you are eligible for scholarships which require an additional application. If you are, the tool will include links to full details of how to apply.

For over two thirds of Oxford scholarships, nothing more than the standard course application is usually required. If you fulfill the eligibility criteria, you will be automatically considered.

In order to be considered for some scholarships offered by departments, you need to enter a scholarship reference code in the relevant section of the graduate application form. If this is the case, the code will be provided in the scholarship information given on department websites. 

Oxford scholarships awarded: Most Oxford scholarships are awarded between late February and June. The approximate date by which decisions are expected to be made will normally be given in the scholarship information available.A scholarship may be awarded either at the same time or after you are offered a place by your department. It may be awarded either before or after you have been offered a college place. 


Teaching,learning formats of  Oxford University:

Each department has its own academic community, dedicated to advancing knowledge in particular subject areas. Departments often work together on teaching joint courses and interdisciplinary research projects.High quality, focused, and shorter than taught courses in many countries, an Oxford masters course facilitates students' swift career progression. This is achieved in part through the close working relationships between supervisors and students, and small group teaching.Teaching styles, formats and frequency of contact with tutors varies between courses. All courses require the student to take on a significant amount of independent study, and this will normally be alongside a framework of seminars and lectures. 

 college of Oxford:

Oxford colleges are small, multidisciplinary communities, where graduate students meet academics and fellow students from around the world, and often from a broad range of subjects.All colleges provide library and IT facilities, accommodation, welfare support, and sports and social events. Graduate students benefit from the Middle Common Room MCR in their college – both a physical space and an organisation, it provides social events, advice, and a link to the graduate community.

Courses by department of Oxford:

Humanities: 

  1. English Language and Literature
  2. Film Aesthetics
  3. History
  4. History of Art
  5. Linguistics, Philology and Phonetics
  6. Medieval and Modern Languages
  7. Music
  8. Oriental Studies
  9. Philosophy
  10. Ruskin School of Art
  11. Theology and Religion
  12. Women's Studies
 Physical and Life Sciences: 
  1. Doctoral Training Programmes
  2. Chemistry
  3. Computer Science
  4. Earth Sciences
  5. Engineering Science
  6. Materials
  7. Mathematics
  8. Physics
  9. Plant Sciences
  10. Statistics
  11. Zoology
Medical Sciences: 
  1. Doctoral Training Centre
  2. Biochemistry
  3. Clinical Medicine
  4. Clinical Neurosciences
  5. Experimental Psychology
  6. Neuroscience
  7. Oncology
  8. Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences
  9. Paediatrics
  10. Pathology
  11. Pharmacology
  12. Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics
  13. Population Health
  14. Primary Care Health Sciences
  15. Psychiatry
  16. Radcliffe Department of Medicine
  17. Surgical Sciences
  18. Women's and Reproductive Health


Social Sciences: 
  1. Anthropology and Museum Ethnography
  2. Archaeology
  3. Area Studies
  4. Blavatnik School of Government
  5. Criminology
  6. Economics
  7. Education
  8. Geography and the Environment
  9. International Development
  10. Law
  11. Oxford Internet Institute
  12. Politics and International Relations
  13. Saïd Business School
  14. Social Policy and Intervention
  15. Socio-Legal Studies
  16. Sociology
Continuing Education:
  1. Humanities
  2. Mathematical, Physical and Life Sciences
  3. Medical and Health Sciences
  4. Social Sciences